Choose.. X Home Exams Certifications
 

JDBC Interview Questions

1 . What is the JDBC?

  • Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) is a standard Java API to interact with relational databases form Java. JDBC has set of classes and interfaces which can use from Java application and talk to database without learning RDBMS details and using Database Specific JDBC Drivers.

2 . What are the new features added to JDBC 4.0?

  • The major features added in JDBC 4.0 include : Auto-loading of JDBC driver class Connection management enhancements Support for RowId SQL type DataSet implementation of SQL using Annotations SQL exception handling enhancements SQL XML support

3 . What's the JDBC 3.0 API?

  • The JDBC 3.0 API is the latest update of the JDBC API. It contains many features, including scrollable result sets and the SQL:1999 data types.
    JDBC (Java Database Connectivity) is the standard for communication between a Java application and a relational database.
    The JDBC API is released in two versions; JDBC version 1.22 (released with JDK 1.1.X in package java.sql) and version 2.0 (released with Java platform 2 in packages java.sql and javax.sql). It is a simple and powerful largely database-independent way of extracting and inserting data to or from any database.

4 . What is new in JDBC 2.0?

  • With the JDBC 2.0 API, you will be able to do the following: Scroll forward and backward in a result set or move to a specific row (TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE,previous(), last(), absolute(), relative(), etc.) Make updates to database tables using methods in the Java programming language instead of using SQL commands.(updateRow(), insertRow(), deleteRow(), etc.) Send multiple SQL statements to the database as a unit, or batch (addBatch(), executeBatch()) Use the new SQL3 datatypes as column values like Blob, Clob, Array, Struct, Ref.

5 . What are the main components of JDBC ?

  • The life cycle of a servlet consists of the following phases:
    • DriverManager: Manages a list of database drivers. Matches connection requests from the java application with the proper database driver using communication subprotocol. The first driver that recognizes a certain subprotocol under JDBC will be used to establish a database Connection.
    • Driver: The database communications link, handling all communication with the database. Normally, once the driver is loaded, the developer need not call it explicitly.
    • Connection : Interface with all methods for contacting a database.The connection object represents communication context, i.e., all communication with database is through connection object only.
    • Statement : Encapsulates an SQL statement which is passed to the database to be parsed, compiled, planned and executed.
    • ResultSet: The ResultSet represents set of rows retrieved due to query execution.

6 . How the JDBC application works?

  • A JDBC application can be logically divided into two layers:
    1. Driver layer
    2. Application layer
    Driver layer consists of DriverManager class and the available JDBC drivers. The application begins with requesting the DriverManager for the connection. An appropriate driver is choosen and is used for establishing the connection. This connection is given to the application which falls under the application layer. The application uses this connection to create Statement kind of objects, through which SQL commands are sent to backend and obtain the results.

7 . What is Metadata and why should I use it?

  • Metadata ('data about data') is information about one of two things:
    1. Database information (java.sql.DatabaseMetaData), or Information about a specific ResultSet (java.sql.ResultSetMetaData).
    Use DatabaseMetaData to find information about your database, such as its capabilities and structure. Use ResultSetMetaData to find information about the results of an SQL query, such as size and types of columns.

8 . How do I create a database connection?

  • The database connection is created in 3 steps:
    Find a proper database URL
    Load the database driver
    Ask the Java DriverManager class to open a connection to your database
    In java code, the steps are realized in code as follows: Create a properly formatted JDBC URL for your database. A JDBC URL has the form
    jdbc:someSubProtocol://myDatabaseServer/theDatabaseName

    try {
    Class.forName("my.database.driver");
    }
    catch(Exception ex)
    {
    System.err.println("Could not load database driver: " + ex);
    }
    Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection("a.JDBC.URL", "databaseLogin", "databasePassword");

9 . How do I load a database driver with JDBC 4.0 / Java 6?

  • Provided the JAR file containing the driver is properly configured, just place the JAR file in the classpath. Java developers NO longer need to explicitly load JDBC drivers using code like
    Class.forName()
    to register a JDBC driver. The DriverManager class takes care of this by automatically locating a suitable driver when the
    DriverManager.getConnection()
    method is called. This feature is backward-compatible, so no changes are needed to the existing JDBC code.

10 . What is JDBC Driver interface?

  • The JDBC Driver interface provides vendor-specific implementations of the abstract classes provided by the JDBC API. Each vendor driver must provide implementations of the java.sql.Connection,Statement,PreparedStatement, CallableStatement, ResultSet and Driver.

11 . What does the connection object represents?

  • The connection object represents communication context, i.e., all communication with database is through connection object only.

12 . What is Statement ?

  • Statement acts like a vehicle through which SQL commands can be sent. Through the connection object we create statement kind of objects. Through the connection object we create statement kind of objects.
    Statement stmt = conn.createStatement();
    This method returns object which implements statement interface.

13 . What is PreparedStatement?

  •   A prepared statement is an SQL statement that is precompiled by the database. Through precompilation, prepared statements improve the performance of SQL commands that are executed multiple times (given that the database supports prepared statements).
    Once compiled, prepared statements can be customized prior to each execution by altering predefined SQL parameters.
    PreparedStatement pstmt = conn.prepareStatement("UPDATE PRODUCT SET PRICE = ? WHERE ID = ?");
    pstmt.setBigDecimal(1, 1233433.00);
    pstmt.setInt(2, 12111);

    Above: conn is an instance of the Connection class and "?" represents parameters.These parameters must be specified before execution.

14 . What is the advantage of using a PreparedStatement?

  •     For SQL statements that are executed repeatedly, using a PreparedStatement object would almost always be faster than using a Statement object.
        This is because creating a PreparedStatement object by explicitly giving the SQL statement causes the statement to be precompiled within the database immediately.Thus, when the PreparedStatement is later executed, the DBMS does not have to recompile the SQL statement and prepared an execution plan - it simply runs the statement.
        Typically, PreparedStatement objects are used for SQL statements that take parameters. However, they can also be used with repeatedly executed SQL statements that do not accept parameters.

15 . What are callable statements ?

  • Callable statements are used from JDBC application to invoke stored procedures and functions.

16 . How to call a stored procedure from JDBC ?

  • PL/SQL stored procedures are called from within JDBC programs by means of the prepareCall() method of the Connection object created. A call to this method takes variable bind parameters as input parameters as well as output variables and creates an object instance of the CallableStatement class. The following line of code illustrates this:
    CallableStatement stproc_stmt = conn.prepareCall("{call procname(?,?,?)}");
    Here conn is an instance of the Connection class.

17 . What is the difference between a Statement and a PreparedStatement?

  • Statement PreparedStatement
    A standard Statement is used to create a Java representation of a literal SQL statement and execute it on the database. A PreparedStatement is a precompiled  statement. This means that when the PreparedStatement is executed, the RDBMS can just run the PreparedStatement SQL statement without having to compile it first.
    Statement has to verify its metadata against the database every time. While a prepared statement has to verify its metadata against the database only once.
    If you want to execute the SQL statement once go for STATEMENT If you want to execute a single SQL statement multiple number of times, then go for PREPAREDSTATEMENT. PreparedStatement objects can be reused with passing different values to the queries

18 . What are types of JDBC drivers?

  • There are four types of drivers defined by JDBC as follows:
    • Type 1: JDBC/ODBC—These require an ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) driver for the database to be installed. This type of driver works by translating the submitted queries into equivalent ODBC queries and forwards them via native API calls directly to the ODBC driver. It provides no host redirection capability.
    • Type2: Native API (partly-Java driver)—This type of driver uses a vendor-specific driver or database API to interact with the database. An example of such an API is Oracle OCI (Oracle Call Interface). It also provides no host redirection.
    • Type 3: Open Protocol-Net—This is not vendor specific and works by forwarding database requests to a remote database source using a net server component. How the net server component accesses the database is transparent to the client. The client driver communicates with the net server using a database-independent protocol and the net server translates this protocol into database calls. This type of driver can access any database.
    • Type 4: Proprietary Protocol-Net(pure Java driver)—This has a same configuration as a type 3 driver but uses a wire protocol specific to a particular vendor and hence can access only that vendor's database. Again this is all transparent to the client.
    Note: Type 4 JDBC driver is most preferred kind of approach in JDBC.

19 . Which type of JDBC driver is the fastest one?

  • JDBC Net pure Java driver(Type IV) is the fastest driver because it converts the JDBC calls into vendor specific protocol calls and it directly interacts with the database.

20 . Does the JDBC-ODBC Bridge support multiple concurrent open statements per connection?

  • No. You can open only one Statement object per connection when you are using the JDBC-ODBC Bridge.

21 . Which is the right type of driver to use and when?

  • Type I driver is handy for prototyping
    Type III driver adds security, caching, and connection control
    Type III and Type IV drivers need no pre-installation
    Note: Preferred by 9 out of 10 Java developers: Type 4.

22 . What are the standard isolation levels defined by JDBC?

  • The values are defined in the class java.sql.Connection and are:
    • TRANSACTION_NONE
    • TRANSACTION_READ_COMMITTED
    • TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITTED
    • TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ
    • TRANSACTION_SERIALIZABLE
    Any given database may not support all of these levels.

23 . What is resultset ?

  • The ResultSet represents set of rows retrieved due to query execution.
    ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sqlQuery);

24 . What does ResultSet actually contain? Is it the actual data of the result or some links to databases? If it is the actual data then why can't we access it after connection is closed?

  • A ResultSet is an interface. Its implementation depends on the driver and hence ,what it "contains" depends partially on the driver and what the query returns.
        For example with the Odbc bridge what the underlying implementation layer contains is an ODBC result set.
        A Type 4 driver executing a stored procedure that returns a cursor - on an oracle database it actually returns a cursor in the databse. The oracle cursor can however be processed like a ResultSet would be from the client. Closing a connection closes all interaction with the database and releases any locks that might have been obtained in the process.

25 . What are the types of resultsets?

  • The values are defined in the class java.sql.Connection and are:
    • TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY specifies that a resultset is not scrollable, that is, rows within it can be advanced only in the forward direction.
    • TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE specifies that a resultset is scrollable in either direction but is insensitive to changes committed by other transactions or other statements in the same transaction.
    • TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE specifies that a resultset is scrollable in either direction and is affected by changes committed by other transactions or statements within the same transaction.
    Note: A TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY resultset is always insensitive.

26 . What's the difference between TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE and TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE?

  • TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE
    An insensitive  resultset is like the snapshot of the data in the database when query was executed. A sensitive resultset does NOT represent a snapshot of data, rather it contains points to those rows which satisfy the query condition.
    After we get the resultset the changes made to data are not visible through the resultset, and hence they are known as insensitive. After we obtain the resultset if the data is modified then such modifications are visible through resultset.
    Performance not effected with insensitive. Since a trip is made for every ‘get' operation, the performance drastically get affected.

27 . How can I get data from multiple ResultSets?

  • With certain database systems, a stored procedure can return multiple result sets, multiple update counts, or some combination of both
        Also, if you are providing a user with the ability to enter any SQL statement, you don't know if you are going to get a ResultSet or an update count back from each statement, without analyzing the contents.
        The method execute() returns a boolean to tell you the type of response true indicates next result is a ResultSet,
    false indicates next result is an update count.
    false also indicates no more results
        Use Statement.getResultSet() to get ResultSet and Use Statement.getUpdateCount to get update count, Update count is -1 when no more results.

28 . How to move the cursor in scrollable resultset ?

  • while (srs.previous()) {
    String name = srs.getString("COLUMN_1");
    float salary = srs.getFloat("COLUMN_2"); //...

    create a scrollable ResultSet object.
    Statement stmt = con.createStatement(ResultSet.TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE, ResultSet.CONCUR_READ_ONLY);
    ResultSet srs = stmt.executeQuery("SELECT COLUMN_1,COLUMN_2 FROM TABLE_NAME");

    use a built in methods like afterLast(), previous(), beforeFirst(), etc. to scroll the resultset. srs.afterLast();
    to find a specific row, use absolute(), relative() methods.srs.absolute(4); /* cursor is on the fourth row*/
    int rowNum = srs.getRow(); /* rowNum should be 4 srs.relative(-3);*/
    int rowNum = srs.getRow(); /* rowNum should be 1 srs.relative(2);*/
    int rowNum = srs.getRow(); /* rowNum should be 3*/

    use isFirst(), isLast(), isBeforeFirst(), isAfterLast() methods to check boundary status.

29 . How do I insert an image file (or other raw data) into a database?

  • All raw data types (including binary documents or images) should be read and uploaded to the database as an array of bytes, byte[]. Originating from a binary file,
    • Read all data from the file using a FileInputStream.
    • Create a byte array from the read data.
    • Use method setBytes(int index, byte[] data); of java.sql.PreparedStatement to upload the data.

30 . What is rowset?

  • A RowSet is an object that encapsulates a set of rows from either Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) result sets or tabular data sources like a file or spreadsheet. RowSets support component-based development models like JavaBeans, with a standard set of properties and an event notification mechanism.

31 . What are the different types of RowSet ?

  • There are two types of RowSet are there. They are:
    • Connected - A connected RowSet object connects to the database once and remains connected until the application terminates.
    • Disconnected - A disconnected RowSet object connects to the database, executes a query to retrieve the data from the database and then closes the connection.
          A program may change the data in a disconnected RowSet while it is disconnected. Modified data can be updated in the database after a disconnected RowSet reestablishes the connection with the database.

32 . What is the need of BatchUpdates?

  • The BatchUpdates feature allows us to group SQL statements together and send to database server in one single trip.

33 . How can I make batch updates using JDBC?

  • One of the more advanced features of JDBC 2.0 is the ability to submit multiple update statements to the database for processing as a single unit. This batch updating can be significantly more efficient compared to JDBC 1.0, where each update statement has to be executed separately. We can use
    stmt.executeBatch();

34 . What is a DataSource?

  • A DataSource object is the representation of a data source in the Java programming language.
    In basic terms,A DataSource is a facility for storing data.
    DataSource can be referenced by JNDI.
    Data Source may point to RDBMS, file System , any DBMS etc.

35 . What are the advantages of DataSource?

  • The few advantages of data source are :
    • An application does not need to hardcode driver information, as it does with the DriverManager.
    • The DataSource implementations can easily change the properties of data sources. For example: There is no need to modify the application code when making changes to the database details.
    • The DataSource facility allows developers to implement a DataSource class to take advantage of features like connection pooling and distributed transactions.

36 . What is connection pooling? what is the main advantage of using connection pooling?

  •     A connection pool is a mechanism to reuse connections created. Connection pooling can increase performance dramatically by reusing connections rather than creating a new physical connection each time a connection is requested..

37 . What is an SQL Locator?

  •     A Locator is an SQL3 data type that acts as a logical pointer to data that resides on a database server. Read "logical pointer" here as an identifier the DBMS can use to locate and manipulate the data.
        A Locator allows some manipulation of the data on the server. While the JDBC specification does not directly address Locators, JDBC drivers typically use Locators under the covers to handle Array, Blob, and Clob data types.

38 . How do I extract a BLOB from a database?

  • A BLOB (Binary Large OBject) is essentially an array of bytes (byte[]), stored in the database. You extract the data in two steps: 1. Call the getBlob method of the Statement class to retrieve a java.sql.Blob object 2. Call either getBinaryStream or getBytes in the extracted Blob object to retrieve the java byte[] which is the Blob object. Note that a Blob is essentially a pointer to a byte array (called LOCATOR in database-talk), so the java.sql.Blob object essentially wraps a byte pointer. Thus, you must extract all data from the database blob before calling commit or Example
    private void runGetBLOB()
    {
    try
    { /* Prepare a Statement:*/
    PreparedStatement stmnt = conn.prepareStatement("select aBlob from BlobTable");
    /* Execute*/
    ResultSet rs = stmnt.executeQuery();
    while(rs.next()) {
    try
    {
    /* Get as a BLOB*/

    Blob aBlob = rs.getBlob(1);
    byte[] allBytesInBlob = aBlob.getBytes(1, (int) aBlob.length()); }
    catch(Exception ex)
    {
    /* The driver could not handle this as a BLOB...*//* Fallback to default (and slower) byte[] handling*/byte[] bytes = rs.getBytes(1);}
    }
    /* Close resources rs.close(); stmnt.close();*/
    }
    catch(Exception ex)
    {
    this.log("Error when trying to read BLOB: " + ex); }
    }

39 . What's the difference between TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE and TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE?

  • TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE
    An insensitive  resultset is like the snapshot of the data in the database when query was executed. A sensitive resultset does NOT represent a snapshot of data, rather it contains points to those rows which satisfy the query condition.
    After we get the resultset the changes made to data are not visible through the resultset, and hence they are known as insensitive. After we obtain the resultset if the data is modified then such modifications are visible through resultset.
    Performance not effected with insensitive. Since a trip is made for every ‘get' operation, the performance drastically get affected.

40 . How can I get data from multiple ResultSets?

  • With certain database systems, a stored procedure can return multiple result sets, multiple update counts, or some combination of both
    Also, if you are providing a user with the ability to enter any SQL statement, you don't know if you are going to get a ResultSet or an update count back from each statement, without analyzing the contents.
    The method execote() returns a boolean to tell you the type of response true indicates next result is a ResultSet,
    false indicates next result is an update count.
    false also indicates no more results
    Use Statement.getResultSet() to get ResultSet and Use Statement.getUpdateCount to get update count, Update count is -1 when no more results.

41 . How to move the cursor in scrollable resultset ?

  • while (srs.previous()) {
    String name = srs.getString("COLUMN_1");
    float salary = srs.getFloat("COLUMN_2"); //...

    create a scrollable ResultSet object.
    Statement stmt = con.createStatement(ResultSet.TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE, ResultSet.CONCUR_READ_ONLY);
    ResultSet srs = stmt.executeQuery("SELECT COLUMN_1,COLUMN_2 FROM TABLE_NAME");

    use a built in methods like afterLast(), previous(), beforeFirst(), etc. to scroll the resultset. srs.afterLast();
    to find a specific row, use absolute(), relative() methods.
    srs.absolute(4); /* cursor is on the fourth row*/
    int rowNum = srs.getRow(); /* rowNum should be 4 srs.relative(-3);*/
    int rowNum = srs.getRow(); /* rowNum should be 1 srs.relative(2);*/
    int rowNum = srs.getRow(); /* rowNum should be 3*/

    use isFirst(), isLast(), isBeforeFirst(), isAfterLast() methods to check boundary status.

42 . How do I insert an image file (or other raw data) into a database?

  • All raw data types (including binary documents or images) should be read and uploaded to the database as an array of bytes, byte[]. Originating from a binary file,
    • Read all data from the file using a FileInputStream.
    • Create a byte array from the read data.
    • Use method setBytes(int index, byte[] data); of java.sql.PreparedStatement to upload the data.

43 . What is rowset?

  • A RowSet is an object that encapsulates a set of rows from either Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) result sets or tabular data sources like a file or spreadsheet. RowSets support component-based development models like JavaBeans, with a standard set of properties and an event notification mechanism.

44 . What are the different types of RowSet ?

  • There are two types of RowSet are there. They are:
    • Connected - A connected RowSet object connects to the database once and remains connected until the application terminates.
    • Disconnected - A disconnected RowSet object connects to the database, executes a query to retrieve the data from the database and then closes the connection. A program may change the data in a disconnected RowSet while it is disconnected. Modified data can be updated in the database after a disconnected RowSet reestablishes the connection with the database.

45 . What is the need of BatchUpdates?

  • The BatchUpdates feature allows us to group SQL statements together and send to database server in one single trip.

46 . How can I make batch updates using JDBC?

  • One of the more advanced features of JDBC 2.0 is the ability to submit multiple update statements to the database for processing as a single unit. This batch updating can be significantly more efficient compared to JDBC 1.0, where each update statement has to be executed separately. We can use
    stmt.executeBatch();

47 . What is a DataSource?

  • A DataSource object is the representation of a data source in the Java programming language. In basic terms,
    A DataSource is a facility for storing data.
    DataSource can be referenced by JNDI.
    Data Source may point to RDBMS, file System , any DBMS etc..

48 . What are the advantages of DataSource?

  • The few advantages of data source are :
    • An application does not need to hardcode driver information, as it does with the DriverManager.
    • The DataSource implementations can easily change the properties of data sources. For example: There is no need to modify the application code when making changes to the database details.
    • The DataSource facility allows developers to implement a DataSource class to take advantage of features like connection pooling and distributed transactions.

49 . What is connection pooling? what is the main advantage of using connection pooling?

  • A connection pool is a mechanism to reuse connections created. Connection pooling can increase performance dramatically by reusing connections rather than creating a new physical connection each time a connection is requested..

50 . What is an SQL Locator?

  • A Locator is an SQL3 data type that acts as a logical pointer to data that resides on a database server. Read "logical pointer" here as an identifier the DBMS can use to locate and manipulate the data.
    A Locator allows some manipulation of the data on the server. While the JDBC specification does not directly address Locators, JDBC drivers typically use Locators under the covers to handle Array, Blob, and Clob data types.